A virtual device driver (VxD) is a software device driver that emulates hardware and other devices so that multiple applications running in protected mode can access hardware interrupt channels, hardware resources and memory without causing conflicts. The Vxd was superseded by the Windows Driver Model (WDM) and is now obsolete.
A smurf attack is a type of denial of service attack in which a system is flooded with spoofed ping messages. This creates high computer network traffic on the victim’s network, which often renders it unresponsive.
Smurfing takes certain well-known facts about Internet Protocol and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) into account. ICMP is used by network administrators to exchange information about network state, and can also be used to ping other nodes to determine their operational status. The smurf program sends a spoofed network packet that contains an ICMP ping. The resulting echo responses to the ping message are directed toward the victim’s IP address. Large number of pings and the resulting echoes can make the network unusable for real traffic.
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