Letterboxing is the process of adding black bars to the top and bottom of a movie or video after shrinking the whole image to fit a smaller screen, which otherwise could not accommodate the wide resolution of the film. This is done because most movies or films are shot in a widescreen format meant for the theaters, which is wider than the format...
Data redundancy is a condition created within a database or data storage technology in which the same piece of data is held in two separate places.
This can mean two different fields within a single database, or two different spots in multiple software environments or platforms. Whenever data is repeated, this basically constitutes data redundancy. This can occur by accident, but is also done deliberately for backup and recovery purposes.
Within the general definition of data redundancy, there are different classifications based on what is considered appropriate in database management, and what is considered excessive or wasteful. Wasteful data redundancy generally occurs when a given piece of data does not have to be repeated, but ends up being duplicated due to inefficient coding or process complexity.
A positive type of data redundancy works to safeguard data and promote consistency. Many developers consider it acceptable for data to be stored in multiple places. The key is to have a central, master field or space for this data, so that there is a way to update all of the places where data is redundant through one central access point. Otherwise, data redundancy can lead to big problems with data inconsistency, where one update does not automatically update another field. As a result, pieces of data that are supposed to be identical end up having different values.
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