OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
A database is the back-end of an application. A DBMS receives instruction from a database administrator (DBA) and accordingly instructs the system to make the necessary changes. These commands can be to load, retrieve or modify existing data from the system.
A DBMS always provides data independence. Any change in storage mechanism and formats are performed without modifying the entire application. There are four main types of database organization:
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