Cruft is a slang term for useless, redundant, or poorly written code. Cruft includes any code that is not necessary for an application to perform the task it was designed for. It also can be used in the context of code that is so poorly written, that you might as well throw it out and start from scratch. Cruft isn't necessarily a bug, but rather...
A database report is the formatted result of database queries and contains useful data for decision-making and analysis.
Most good business applications contain a built-in reporting tool; this is simply a front-end interface that calls or runs back-end database queries that are formatted for easy application usage. For example, a banking software application may contain specifically defined reports on all customers with large deposits or reports on monthly loan summaries for all customers.
To extract data, a query must be run with various tools that call at least one query language. Structured querying language (SQL) is the most popular and well-known querying language. Other query languages include:
Another standard reporting feature is the ability to create output parameters or restrictions. For example, when a user runs a monthly loans summary report, the user first enters the specific month or account type associated with the requested report. Specialized reporting tools not typically available via simple queries may be connected to a database to facilitate additional reporting capabilities. These often offer greater data insight and highlight trends and patterns, and are frequently labeled under the buzzword "business intelligence" (BI).
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