OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
Hardware configuration references the details and system resource settings allotted for a specific device. Many computer specialists improve hardware performance by adjusting configurations, which may also include settings for the motherboard and the BIOS, as well as the bus speeds.
With newer technology, most computers have plug-and-play (PnP) allowing the OS to detect and configure external and internal peripherals, as well as most adaptors. PnP has the ability to locate and configure hardware components without needing to reset jumpers and dual in-line package (DIP) switches.
Each device has a hardware configuration setting, which may include the following:
All hardware devices have configuration settings that can affect performance and system function. Hardware configuration information may include:
During power-on-self-test (POST), basic input/output system (BIOS) searches system configurations to determine what devices are present and how they interface with the CPU. After POST, when the computer and system configurations are found, the CPU uses the information to process instructions and data. Configuration information is stored in several ways using DIP switches, jumpers and complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS).
Today most peripheral devices use PnP, which will auto-configure the DMA, IRQ and I/O address. Older systems that do not have PnP require a new device to be set by using jumpers or DIP switches.
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