OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
Time division duplex (TDD) refers to duplex communication links where uplink is separated from downlink by the allocation of different time slots in the same frequency band. It is a transmission scheme that allows asymmetric flow for uplink and downlink data transmission. Users are allocated time slots for uplink and downlink transmission.
Time division multiplexing separates uplink and downlink signals by matching full duplex communication over a half-duplex communication link. This method is highly advantageous in case there is an asymmetry of uplink and downlink data rates. TDD divides a data stream into frames and assigns different time slots to forward and reverse transmissions, thereby allowing both types of transmissions to share the same transmission medium.
When data over uplink increases, more communication capacity is allocated. This is taken away when the traffic load becomes lighter. It operates by toggling transmission directions over a time interval, which occurs rapidly and is barely visible to the user. TDD supports voice and symmetrical as well as asymmetric data services. It also handles a dynamic mix of both traffic types. The capacities of downlinks and uplinks are altered in favor of one direction over another by providing greater time allocation through time slots to downstream transmission intervals than to upstream ones.
Well known examples of TDD are:
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