OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
A cybercriminal is an individual who commits cybercrimes, where he/she makes use of the computer either as a tool or as a target or as both. Cybercriminals use computers in three broad ways:
Cybercriminals often work in organized groups. Some cybercriminal roles are:
Clearly, there is much overlap between roles, but as cybercrime becomes a greater issue, more specialization is being seen as organized crime gets in the picture. For example, hackers were once more often than not hobbyists who broke into systems for personal gratification. While white-hat hacking hasn't disappeared, it's much more common now to see hackers as professionals who sell their services to the highest bidder.
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