OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
Engineer-to-Order Enterprise Resource Planning (ETO ERP) is a class of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems designed to support manufacturer requirements for the unique engineering designs of their customer products. Specific processes are involved in each phase of product manufacturing, including estimates, materials, engineering changes, cost allocation, tracking, communication and customer interaction. Most manufacturing organizations have unique processes, size variations, resources and end products. Thus, not all manufacturing processes are suited to a standard ERP.
Supplier and Make to Order (MTO) manufacturer interaction processes stand in sharp contrast to those between suppliers and ETO manufacturers. Supplier and ETO manufacturer interactions are more critical, as these customers order unique sets and bills of materials. Because ETO materials are project specific and not frequently used or ordered, they usually have long lead times (months or years), compared to MTO manufacturers (days or weeks). Tight scheduling is expected with no scope of error.
Key ETO ERP characteristics include:
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