Bare-metal programming is a term for programming that operates without various layers of abstraction or, as some experts describe it, "without an operating system supporting it." Bare-metal programming interacts with a system at the hardware level, taking into account the specific build of the hardware.
A choke packet is used in network maintenance and quality management to inform a specific node or transmitter that its transmitted traffic is creating congestion over the network. This forces the node or transmitter to reduce its output rate. Choke packets are used for congestion and flow control over a network. The source node is addressed directly by the router, forcing it to decrease its sending rate .The source node acknowledges this by reducing the sending rate by some percentage. An Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) source quench packet is a type of choke packet normally used by routers.
A choke packet's technique for congestion control detection and recovery employes routers. The routers frequently check for abnormalities over the network by examining factors like line utilization, queuing and length of buffers. In the event of congestion, routers send choke packets to all corresponding segments to reduce their data throughput. The source node congesting the network has to decrease the throughput by a certain factor, depending upon circumstances such as the size of the congestions, available bandwidth and buffer size.
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