The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model is a conceptual and logical layout that defines network communication used by systems open to interconnection and communication with other systems. The model is broken into seven subcomponents, or layers, each of which represents a conceptual collection of services provided to the layers above and below...
An absolute cell reference is a cell reference in a spreadsheet application that remains constant even if the shape or size of the spreadsheet is changed, or the reference is copied or moved to another cell or sheet. Absolute cell references are important when referring to constant values in a spreadsheet. Absolute cell reference may also be called absolute reference.
Absolute cell reference can be used when a particular cell reference needs to be constant. Cell references are often used in formulas, charts, functions and other commands. In some scenarios, it becomes important to keep a cell reference constant when it is copied to a different cell. An absolute cell reference always remains the same no matter where it is copied and is often denoted by the "$" symbol. So, if B10 is a cell in a spreadsheet, $B$10 is used to denote that the reference always points to the 10th row in column B, even if that reference is copied to another cell or the spreadsheet is changed in some other way.In many spreadsheet programs such as Excel, a cell reference can be made absolute by pressing the F4 key after the cell reference is typed. The spreadsheet will automatically make the cell reference absolute. If the F4 key is pressed continuously, the spreadsheet program will cycle through all of the absolute reference possibilities. For instance, if the cell reference is typed as $A1, continuous pressing of F4 will change the cell reference to A$1 and then A1. By pressing the F4 key cell references are changed directly to the left of the insertion point.
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