A bad sector is an unusable part or subdivision within a track on a magnetic or optical disc located on a computer's hard disk or flash drive. A bad sector is typically formed as a result of physical damage of some sort, or rarely, the operating system's inability to access the information. The physical damage occurs to the disk surface or as a...
Line of sight (LoS) is a type of propagation that can transmit and receive data only where transmit and receive stations are in view of each other without any sort of an obstacle between them. FM radio, microwave and satellite transmission are examples of line-of-sight communication.
Long-distance data communication is more effective through wireless networks but geographical obstacles and the curvature of the earth bring limitations to line-of-sight transmission. However, these issues can generally be mitigated through planning, calculations and the use of additional technologies. For example, mobile phones use a modified line-of-sight transmission, which is made possible through a combination of effects like diffraction, multipath reflection, local repeaters and rapid handoff.
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