OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
V.22bis is an ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standard that extends the V.22 standard by providing a faster transmission rate using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) at 600 baud to carry digital data at 1,200 or 2,400 bits per second, although the 1,200 bit rate is more compatible with the standard.
V.22bis is pronounced "v-dot-twenty-two-biss."
V.22bis was developed in 1984 to allow synchronous and asynchronous 2,400 bps full duplex modems to be used on dial-up lines and two-wire leased lines.
Modems that adhere to V.22 standards are intended for use on general switched telephone network (GSTN) connections and on point-to-point, two-wire leased telephone circuits.
The important features of V.22 modems are:
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