OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
Attenuation is a telecommunications term that refers to a reduction in signal strength commonly occurring while transmitting analog or digital signals over long distances.
Attenuation is historically measured in dB but it can also be measured in terms of voltage.
Attenuation can relate to both hard-wired connections and to wireless transmissions.
There are many instances of attenuation in telecommunications and digital network circuitry.
Inherent attenuation can be caused by a number of signaling issues including:
Repeaters are used in attenuating circuits to boost the signal through amplification (the opposite of attenuation). When using copper conductors, the higher the frequency signal, the more attenuation is caused along a cable length. Modern communications use high frequencies so other mediums which have a flat attenuation across all frequencies, such as fiber optics are used instead of traditional copper circuits.
Different types of attenuation include:
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