End-to-end testing is a methodology used to test whether the flow of an application is performing as designed from start to finish. The purpose of carrying out end-to-end tests is to identify system dependencies and to ensure that the right information is passed between various system components and systems.
End-to-end testing involves ensuring that that integrated components of an application function as expected. The entire application is tested in a real-world scenario such as communicating with the database, network, hardware and other applications. For example, a simplified end-to-end testing of an email application might involve logging in to the application, getting into the inbox, opening and closing the mail box, composing, forwarding or replying to email, checking in the sent items and logging out of the application.
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Forward error correction (FEC) is a digital signal processing technique used to enhance data reliability. It does this by introducing redundant data, called error correcting code, prior to data transmission or storage. FEC provides the receiver with the ability to correct errors without a reverse channel to request the retransmission of data. The...