OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. This model has been criticized because of its technicality and limited features. Each layer of the ISO model...
A transaction process system (TPS) is an information processing system for business transactions involving the collection, modification and retrieval of all transaction data. Characteristics of a TPS include performance, reliability and consistency.
TPS is also known as transaction processing or real-time processing.
A transaction process system and transaction processing are often contrasted with a batch process system and batch processing, where many requests are executed all at one time. The former requires the interaction of a user, whereas batch processing does not require a user to be present. Also, in batch processing the results of each transaction are not immediately available. Additionally, there is a delay while the many requests are being organized, stored and eventually executed. In transaction processing there is no delay and the results of each transaction are immediately available. During the delay time for batch processing, errors can occur. Although errors can occur in transaction processing, they are infrequent and tolerated, but do not warrant shutting down the entire system.
To achieve performance, reliability and consistency, data must be readily accessible in a data warehouse, backup procedures must be in place and the recovery process must be in place to deal with system failure, human failure, computer viruses, software applications or natural disasters.
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