10 Biggest Cyber Espionage Cases: Undercover Campaigns of the Last 12 Months

Why Trust Techopedia

From the SolarWinds breach in 2020 to the anticipatory defenses being raised for the 2024 Paris Olympics, the threat from AI-powered cyber espionage continues to evolve. The rise of advanced persistent threats (APTs) demonstrates how state actors can easily infiltrate the most secure networks, leaving a trail of disruption in their wake.

Governments are now waking up to the threat of a digital cold war in which cyber spies and cyber warfare occur on digital battlefields. But there are also fears around the increasingly sophisticated and targeted methods challenging national security, the fabric of global commerce, our critical infrastructure, and privacy.

This guide will explore the most extensive cyber espionage campaigns over the last 12 months and what to expect in the year ahead.

Key Takeaways

  • Cyber espionage cases have evolved to target critical infrastructures and strategic sectors globally.
  • State-sponsored actors, including those from China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, have demonstrated sophisticated capabilities to infiltrate and disrupt networks.
  • The latest incidents reveal the growing challenge of securing cloud infrastructure against espionage efforts.
  • Advanced persistent threats (APTs) employ innovative tactics such as “MFA bombing” and forging authentication tokens to gain unauthorized access.
  • The strategic targeting of sectors outlined in national development plans, such as “Made in China 2025,” showcases the economic motivations behind cyber espionage campaigns.

Top 10 Cyber Espionage Cases of 2023-2024

1. Securing the 2024 Paris Olympics: The Cyber Espionage Challenge

In anticipation of the 2024 Paris Olympics, France confronts an escalating cyber threat landscape, highlighted by ANSSI’s report on a marked increase in espionage targeting strategic sectors, including public administrations and defense entities.

This uptick in cyber espionage and sophisticated attacks on mobile devices and networks across mainland and overseas territories underscores tactics linked to state actors like Russia and China.

Attackers can exploit large events’ extended digital footprint and media spotlight to monitor, extort, tarnish the host country’s image, or disrupt the event.

With the Olympics on the horizon, ANSSI’s focus sharpens on pre-positioning and destabilization efforts.


It stresses the imperative for advanced cybersecurity defenses against this backdrop of heightened digital warfare and emphasizes the critical need for national and international vigilance and preparedness.

2. Patchwork APT’s Espionage Operation: VajraSpy RAT Infiltrates Google Play

The Indian APT group Patchwork has been exploiting Google Play to disseminate cyber espionage apps. It targeted Pakistanis with a new remote access trojan (RAT) dubbed VajraSpy, hidden within seemingly legitimate messaging and news applications.

Reportedly, the cyber espionage campaign has resulted in thousands of downloads of malware-laden apps capable of intercepting communications, extracting messages from platforms like WhatsApp and Signal, recording phone calls, and covertly taking pictures through compromised devices’ cameras.

Despite its removal from Google Play, VajraSpy remains a threat to third-party app stores, further underscoring the sophisticated nature of cyberthreats emerging from state-sponsored actors.

3. Cloud Compromised: How APT29 Exploits Cloud Vulnerabilities

In a striking evolution of cyberespionage tactics, the elite Russian threat group APT29, also known under monikers such as Cozy Bear, Midnight Blizzard, and Nobelium, has adeptly shifted its hacking focus towards cloud vulnerabilities, highlighting the growing challenge in securing cloud infrastructure against sophisticated adversaries.

Western intelligence recognizes APT29 as a Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) unit. APT29 has been adapting its methods to infiltrate governments’ and corporations’ cloud services effectively.

With a notorious track record that includes the 2016 Democratic National Committee hack and the 2020 SolarWinds software supply chain compromise, APT29’s recent activities involve breaching Microsoft staff email accounts and extracting sensitive data from Hewlett Packard Enterprise.

This strategic focus on service and dormant accounts, alongside innovative tactics like “MFA bombing,” underscores the persistent and adaptive nature of cyberthreats facing cloud environments.

The UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), in collaboration with global cybersecurity agencies, including the NSA and FBI, has issued an advisory warning of APT29’s refined techniques.

These include brute forcing and password spraying to exploit service accounts, often inadequately protected by multi-factor authentication due to their shared nature within organizations.

4. The I-Soon Leak Exposes China’s Cyber Espionage Machine

The I-Soon data leak recently revealed a comprehensive snapshot of China’s cyber espionage operations. It revealed an expansive campaign that targets an array of global entities, from social media platforms to government organizations.

This leak, circulating on GitHub, discloses a wide array of sophisticated hacking tools and capabilities, such as malware adept at breaching Android and iOS devices, custom remote access trojans (RATs), and network penetration devices.

Further analysis implicates I-Soon, a cybersecurity firm, as operating under the auspices of the Chinese government. It notably services agencies like the Ministry of Public Security, thus underscoring a state-sponsored dimension to these cyber activities.

5. Iran’s Cyber Espionage Targets Middle East Aviation and Aerospace

Security researchers at Mandiant, part of Google Cloud’s cybersecurity arm, unearthed an intricate cyber-espionage campaign linked to Iran, targeting the Middle East’s aerospace, aviation, and defense sectors.

Mandiant associates the campaign with the Iranian group UNC1549, which exhibits connections to the Tortoiseshell hacking operation.

This operation is known for targeting Israeli shipping and US aerospace and defense firms and is linked to Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

This association gains particular significance in ongoing regional tensions and Iran’s support for Hamas.

The campaign included the extensive use of Microsoft Azure cloud infrastructure and social engineering to deploy two novel backdoors, MINIBIKE and MINIBUS. These backdoors enable file exfiltration, command execution, and sophisticated reconnaissance capabilities.

A custom tunneler, dubbed LIGHTRAIL, was also identified, further camouflaging cyberespionage under innocuous internet traffic. This is the evolving threat landscape and the critical need for heightened cybersecurity vigilance in defense-related sectors.

6. Cross-Border Cyber Espionage: North Korea’s Raid on South Korean Semiconductors

North Korean hackers infiltrated South Korean semiconductor equipment manufacturers, absconding with critical product design drawings and facility photographs, as disclosed by South Korea’s National Intelligence Service (NIS).

This cyber espionage underscores Pyongyang’s intent to develop semiconductors for its weapons programs amid international sanctions that complicate procurement efforts.

The breaches, which occurred in December and February, highlight a strategic move by North Korea to bolster its capabilities for satellite and missile technologies.

South Korea’s spy agency points out the hackers’ “living off the land” tactics, which leverage legitimate tools within servers to evade detection, making these cyber attacks particularly challenging to counter.

While North Korea’s history of cyber operations is well-documented, particularly in terms of cryptocurrency theft to fund its regime and weapons ambitions, these latest incidents signal a sophisticated evolution in Pyongyang’s cyber warfare strategies, targeting key technologies and state secrets to circumvent international sanctions.

7. Chinese Espionage Breaches Dutch Defence

In a revealed cybersecurity incident, the Dutch Ministry of Defence fell victim to a Chinese cyber-espionage operation last year. The Netherlands’ Military Intelligence and Security Service (MIVD) uncovered malware deployment, including a particularly persistent strain known as Coathanger.

The remote access trojan (RAT), aimed at Fortigate network security appliances, demonstrated alarming resilience by surviving system reboots and even firmware updates, a feature that complicates mitigation efforts.

Fortunately, the network’s effective segmentation mitigated the breach’s impact. This security measure limited exposure to a research and development network with fewer than 50 users.

Despite the limited damage, this incident underscores state-sponsored cyberthreats’ sophisticated and persistent nature, particularly from Chinese spies against global targets.

8. Cyber Espionage Operations Against Top Western Officials Revealed

In December 2023, the UK and US jointly accused Russian security services of conducting a pervasive cyber-espionage campaign. The attack targeted high-profile figures, including politicians, journalists, and NGOs.

This accusation aligns with past suspicions of Russian interference in significant political events, such as the 2016 Brexit referendum.

Concurrently, the US unveiled charges against two Russians linked to a broad hacking initiative targeting NATO countries and marked them with sanctions.

The UK’s claim emphasized the FSB’s attempts to breach the digital defenses of UK parliamentarians across various parties, leading to document leaks that spanned from 2015 to 2023, including sensitive UK-US trade documents before the 2019 UK general election.

This concerted callout by the UK and US underscored Russia’s persistent and evolving cyber threat, emphasizing the need for vigilance and robust defense mechanisms against such state-sponsored espionage activities.

9. Made in China 2025: The Cyber Espionage Pathway to Economic Dominance

In a compelling testimony before the House Judiciary Subcommittee, Benjamin Jensen highlighted the pervasive cyber espionage tactics employed by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to undermine the American economy. They mainly targeted intellectual property within the tech, energy, and aviation sectors.

Jensen pointed out that China has been linked to many cyber espionage campaigns, far exceeding those attributed to other nations like Russia.

These operations, meticulously documented in the Dyadic Cyber Incident and Campaign Dataset, aim to steal valuable intellectual property and align closely with China’s “Made in China 2025” strategic plan.

10. Storm-0558 Uncovered: Microsoft Exposes Major Chinese Cyber-Espionage Operation

Last year, Microsoft unveiled a sophisticated Chinese cyber-espionage campaign, identified as Storm-0558, which compromised the email accounts of at least 25 organizations, including the US government.

Initiated upon a customer’s alert on June 16, Microsoft’s investigation revealed unauthorized access dating back to May 15, targeting entities mainly in Western Europe with espionage, data theft, and credential harvesting.

The attackers gained entry through Outlook Web Access and Outlook.com by forging authentication tokens, exploiting a token validation issue to impersonate Azure AD users.

Microsoft swiftly countered the threat by blocking the forged tokens, replacing the compromised key, and enhancing protections for its cloud services.

The incident, confirmed by the US State and Commerce Departments as affecting it, underscores the evolving stealth and sophistication of Chinese cyber-espionage efforts, employing advanced proxy networks to evade detection.

Major Cyber Espionage Groups Worldwide

Group Name Origin/Allegiance Known For Targets Other Names
CozyBear Russian

(FSB Backed)

SolarWinds, DNC Hack Government departments in the US, UK, EU, South Korea, Uzbekistan APT29, YTTRIUM, The Dukes, Office Monkeys
Gorgon Group Pakistani MasterMana Botnet hack, credential theft US, Germany, South Korea, India, UAE and the utilities sector
Deep Panda Chinese Anthem hack, OPM hack US-based organizations in government, defense, finance, telecommunications KungFu Kittens, Shell Crew, WebMasters
Bouning Golf Unknown

(Middle Eastern)

GolfSpy malware infection Middle Eastern military data, Turkish, Kurdish, ISIS supporters in various countries
CopyKittens  Iranian Operation Wilted Tulip, attacks on the German Bundestag Germany, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, US, Jordan, UN employees
Apt33 Iranian (State-backed) Attacks on aviation and energy sectors US, South Korea, Saudi Arabia. Organizations in aviation and petrochemical production HOLMIUM, Elfin
Charming Kitten Iranian Phishing attacks, credential theft Think tanks, political research centers, journalists, and environmental activists. APT35, Phosphorus, Newscaster, Ajax
Magic Hound Iranian Spear phishing, malware distribution Government, technology, and energy sectors in Saudi Arabia and the US Rocket Kitten, Cobalt Gypsy
Muddy Water  Iranian Spear phishing, Android malware Middle East, Asia, Europe, US, governmental sectors, telecommunications
Windshift Unknown Targeting OSX users Specific individuals in government and critical infrastructure across the Gulf Cooperation Council region Bahamut

The Bottom Line

The recent cyber espionage cases, from the SolarWinds breach to the infiltration of Google Play by VajraSpy RAT, underscore the strategic intent of state actors to undermine economic, political, and security interests through the digital domain.

The sophistication of these campaigns, leveraging everything from cloud vulnerabilities to advanced malware, highlights the necessity for robust cybersecurity defenses. As cyber espionage becomes an increasingly integral component of global strategies, understanding these incidents is crucial for developing effective countermeasures and safeguarding traditional borders and the digital frontier.

Edward Snowden and Julian Assange’s revelations also shed light on the complex nature of digital privacy and government transparency, exposing how the US and UK are not blameless in cyber espionage.

Their disclosures about the CIA unveiled unprecedented surveillance and prosecutorial tactics against WikiLeaks and similar activist groups, challenging notions of freedom and privacy.


What is one example of a major incident involving cyber espionage?

Is cyber espionage an act of war?

Is cyber spying illegal?

What are the five types of espionage?


  1. Cert.ssi.gouv (Cert.ssi.gouv)
  2. Google Play Used to Spread ‘Patchwork’ APT’s Espionage Apps (Darkreading)
  3. Russian cyberespionage group APT29 targeting cloud vulnerabilities (Scmagazine)
  4. Inline XBRL Viewer (Sec)
  5. UK and allies expose evolving tactics of Russian cyber actors (Ncsc.gov)
  6. The I-Soon data leak unveils China’s cyber espionage tactics, techniques, procedures, and capabilities. (Thecyberwire)
  7. When Cats Fly: Suspected Iranian Threat Actor UNC1549 Targets Israeli and Middle East Aerospace and Defense Sectors (Mandiant)
  8. North Korea hacked South Korea chip equipment makers, Seoul says (Bbc.co)
  9. North Korea: Missile programme funded through stolen crypto, UN report says (Bbc)
  10. North Korea hackers stole $400m of cryptocurrency in 2021, report says (Bbc)
  11. Chinese hackers infect Dutch military network with malware (Bleepingcomputer)
  12. TLP:CLEAR MIVD AIVD Advisory Coathanger (Ncsc)
  13. UK, US accuse Russia of cyber-espionage campaign against top politicians (France24)
  14. How the Chinese Communist Party Uses Cyber Espionage to Undermine the American Economy (Csis)
  15. What is Made in China 2025 and Why Has it Made the World So Nervous? (China-briefing)
  16. Microsoft mitigates China-based threat actor Storm-0558 targeting of customer email (Msrc.microsoft)
  17. Chinese hackers breached State, Commerce Depts, Microsoft and US say (Reuters)
  18. Snowden Documents Reveal Covert Surveillance and Pressure Tactics Aimed at WikiLeaks and Its Supporters (Theintercept)
  19. Kidnapping, assassination and a London shoot-out: Inside the CIA’s secret war plans against WikiLeaks (News.yahoo)

Related Reading

Related Terms

Neil C. Hughes
Senior Technology Writer
Neil C. Hughes
Senior Technology Writer

Neil is a freelance tech journalist with 20 years of experience in IT. He’s the host of the popular Tech Talks Daily Podcast, picking up a LinkedIn Top Voice for his influential insights in tech. Apart from Techopedia, his work can be found on INC, TNW, TechHQ, and Cybernews. Neil's favorite things in life range from wandering the tech conference show floors from Arizona to Armenia to enjoying a 5-day digital detox at Glastonbury Festival and supporting Derby County.  He believes technology works best when it brings people together.