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TCP sequence prediction involves assessing messages transmitted over TCP protocol between a receiver and a sender and understanding the sequence that governs the series of data packets. It can be useful in a certain type of hacking effort called a TCP sequence prediction attack.
In a TCP sequence prediction attack, the hacker is trying to predict the sequence of the next data packet to be sent. If he or she can successfully guess the sequence number, that party can interject a data packet with the same sequence number arising from the same IP address and successfully submit fraudulent packets to the receiver.
In order to figure out the sequence number, the hacker might listen in on the communication or assess it to see the series of sequence numbers, in order to predict which sequence number is coming next. These types of problems illustrate TCP/IP vulnerabilities relevant to the common internet protocol.