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Graph theory, in computer science and applied mathematics, refers to an extensive study of points and lines. A graph contains shapes whose dimensions are distinguished by their placement, as established by vertices and points. In integrated circuits (ICs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs), graph theory plays an important role where complex layered microchips are interconnected to perform useful functions.
Graph theory mostly deals with ends or edges in a graph which are the end vertices. A vertex may or may not be a part of a graph, but it is identified by the scale of the graph. Graph theory has helped scientists in the designing of microchips' electronics, providing maximum component density and minimum total interconnecting conductor length. The purpose of using graph theory is to optimize processing time, increase processing speed and electrical efficiency while keeping in mind the power rating of the device.