Telemetry, in general, is a term for technologies that accommodate collecting information in the form of measurements or statistical data, and forward it to IT systems in a remote location. This term can be used in reference to many different types of systems, such as wireless systems using radio, ultrasonic or infrared technologies, or some types of systems operating over telephone or computer networks. Others may use different strategies like SMS messaging.
Techopedia explains Telemetry
Telemetry is commonly used in systems such as meteorological systems, oil and gas drilling systems, water management systems and agricultural systems, as well as in the development of infrastructure for space travel. For example, vehicles like space shuttles and installations like the International Space Station utilize telemetry and equipment, and some types of space satellites and space probes include telemetry features.
In general, telemetry allows for the robust collection of data and its delivery to centralized systems where it can be used effectively. Part of the evolution of telemetry involves the emergence of big data technologies and big data strategies that take enormous amounts of relatively unstructured data and aggregate it in centralized systems. These types of "data-rich" data transit systems provide sophisticated and detailed reports and intelligence for any industry or public agency.