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A register of known spam operations (ROKSO) is a database of the most harmful spammers. It usually contains 100 to 150 hard-line spamming outfits made up of professional spammers who have been caught by law enforcement or other agencies three or more times for distributing up to 80 percent of most spam. Working in conjunction with law enforcement, ROSKO provides evidence-based spamming data along with aliases used by spammers. This evidence includes spamming methods, IP addresses, history and other pertinent data.
Those listed on the ROKSO have been denied Internet access by three or more Internet service providers as a result of three known spamming operations that have been implemented in far-reaching measures. Most ROKSOs deal with pharmaceutical scams, while other promote Internet pornography and other illicit online services.
Nearly 80 percent of spam targeted at North American and European computer users is performed by professional spammers working together or individually. The former, known as spam gangs, are identified by ROKSO on a list of professional spammers. Each gang or group can consist of anywhere from one to five spammers. Within ROKSO's Top 10 list are spammers who are located around the world, including Ukraine, Estonia, Hong Kong, the Russian Federation, the United States and Canada. Many operate under aliases, which are also listed in the ROKSO database.