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An Ishikawa diagram is a graph that shows the various causes of a certain effect. It is also known as a fish bone diagram due to its resemblance to a fish skeleton. In the diagram, the causes flow from left to right to represent certain effects.
An Ishikawa diagram is also known as a cause-effect graph.
An Ishikawa diagram is useful for software testing because it can show the various causes and effects of software failure.
The graph shows how a cause relates to a certain effect in a visual way, which can be hard to document by itself. For example, in a C program, there might be a null pointer being referenced. It would be diagrammed with the null pointer as the cause and the program crash as the effect.These graphs can be created by entire teams to let them visualize problems in software and how to fix them.