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Graph coloring in computer science refers to coloring certain parts of a visual graph, often in digital form. However, IT professionals also use the term to talk about the particular constraint satisfaction problem or NP-complete problem of assigning specific colors to graph segments.
The common scientific definition of graph coloring as a particular computer problem relates to a theoretical visual display graph. Here, a technology must assign a color to each node or part of the graph, with the additional rule that no two adjacent or connected parts can be assigned the same color. These constraints provide a computing problem through which professionals can assess the capability of a technology.
In addition to its use as a constraint problem, graph coloring as a technique is valuable for all sorts of visual dashboard and display software platforms, many of which are emerging in enterprise resource planning and similar tech industry segments. Color coding is a major part of the data visualization that provides companies the ability to digest big data that is aggregated and funneled through their software systems.