Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

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What Does Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Mean?

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a technical approach used in the analysis and design of an application or system through the application of the object-oriented paradigm and concepts including visual modeling. This is applied throughout the development life cycle of the application or system, fostering better product quality and even encouraging stakeholder participation and communication.

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Techopedia Explains Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

Software and computer application systems are incredibly complex concepts since there are few material restrictions and a lot of possible arbitrary reconstructions. Contrast that to things like bridge or building design, where the concept of a bridge or building is defined by the materials to be used and the nature of the environment it is built upon, which results in few options. Software does not enjoy the same restrictions, and the room for complexity to grow is very large. This is where object-oriented analysis and design comes into play. It uses abstraction as a tool to encapsulate complexity, and the more abstractions are introduced, the greater is the reduction in complexity. These acts of abstraction and encapsulation allow for certain problems to be highlighted and subsequently suppressed.

OOAD is best applied iteratively since there is no clear process involved, but each aspect where OOAD is applied is refined as it is reused. This is because major portions of the designs are based on the entire aspects of the system and on the entities rather than on individual functions and code. This enforces the modular approach of OOAD whose goal is to break down the problem or the system into smaller units, called objects, that can stand on their own and be changed without affecting the ones around them too much. This makes it easy to add functionality and behavior and allow the system to gracefully accept change.

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Margaret Rouse
Senior Editor
Margaret Rouse
Senior Editor

Margaret is an award-winning technical writer and teacher known for her ability to explain complex technical subjects to a non-technical business audience. Over the past twenty years, her IT definitions have been published by Que in an encyclopedia of technology terms and cited in articles by the New York Times, Time Magazine, USA Today, ZDNet, PC Magazine, and Discovery Magazine. She joined Techopedia in 2011. Margaret's idea of a fun day is helping IT and business professionals learn to speak each other’s highly specialized languages.