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A voltage regulator module is a basic converter that is used by low-voltage devices such as microprocessors to lower a voltage of +5V or +12V according to the specification of the system. In short, microchips with different voltage requirements can be mounted to the same motherboard using a voltage regulator module.
A voltage regulator module is also known as a processor power module (PPM).
A voltage regulator module is essentially an integrated circuit (IC) mounted on a motherboard that ensures each component gets its required voltage. It detects and accommodates the voltage requirements in the circuit, and hence it is an essential part of the motherboard of a CPU. Modern CPUs require lower core voltages, typically 1.5V. The exact voltage need is communicated to the VRM by the processor via voltage identification (VID). The VRM initially supplies a standard voltage to the device, which sends a specific VID logic as a reply. After reading the VID, the VRM becomes a voltage regulator, now knowing the voltage level to be supplied.