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Internet traffic never passes through root servers. Routing is not a root server function. Instead, root servers answer queries from other sections of the DNS.
A number of root servers are located around the world, although there is some controversy about how many are actually in existence. Many sources claim that there are 13 root servers. However, this claim has been shown to be false, as it only refers to the number of named authorities in a root zone's delegation data. Most sources list hundreds of these root servers existing in various locations worldwide.