Logical access in IT is often defined as interactions with hardware through remote access. This type of access generally features identification, authentication and authorization protocols. This is often contrasted with the term "physical access," which refers to interactions with hardware in the physical environment, where equipment is stored and used.
Techopedia explains Logical Access
Businesses, organizations and other entities use a wide spectrum of logical access controls to protect hardware from unauthorized remote access. These can include sophisticated password programs, advanced biometric security features, or any other setups that effectively identify and screen users at any administrative level.
The particular logical access controls used in a given facility and hardware infrastructure partially depend on the nature of the entity that owns and administrates the hardware setup. Government logical access security is often different from business logical access security, where federal agencies may have specific guidelines for controlling logical access. Users may be required to hold security clearances or go through other screening procedures that complement secure password or biometric functions. This is all part of protecting the data kept on a specific hardware setup.