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Thread synchronization is the concurrent execution of two or more threads that share critical resources. Threads should be synchronized to avoid critical resource use conflicts. Otherwise, conflicts may arise when parallel-running threads attempt to modify a common variable at the same time.
To clarify thread synchronization, consider the following example: three threads - A, B, and C - are executed concurrently and need to access a critical resource, Z. To avoid conflicts when accessing Z, threads A, B, and C must be synchronized. Thus, when A accesses Z, and B also tries to access Z, B’s access of Z must be avoided with security measures until A finishes its operation and comes out of Z.
In Java, two synchronization strategies are used to prevent thread interference and memory consistency errors: