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Linux, Apache, MySQL and Perl/PHP/Python is a solution stack that is most commonly referred to using its acronym "LAMP." It is an open source development platform for creating and managing Web applications.
Linux serves as the backend operating system (OS). Apache is the Web server, MySQL is the database, and one of PHP, Perl, Python is the scripting language. PHP is the most popular of the three scripting languages.
The LAMP development platform is an extremely popular solution stack. Perhaps the most significant reason for its widespread use is that all components of the stack are open source and thus free to use.
In addition, the popularity creates a strong developer community that serves as a resource to assist new developers. Learning the basics of LAMP is enough to get a developer to the point where they can launch a fairly complex website. That is, enterprise level sites would involve a number of other technologies, but despite LAMP being open source, it is more than enough for the vast majority of websites.
The following are LAMP variants with replaced OSs: