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An optical fiber cable is a type of cable that has a number of optical fibers bundled together, which are normally covered in their individual protective plastic covers. Optical cables are used to transfer digital data signals in the form of light up to distances of hundreds of miles with higher throughput rates than those achievable via electrical communication cables. All optical fibers use a core of hair-like transparent silicon covered with less refractive indexed cladding to avoid light leakage to the surroundings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the optical fiber, it is normally covered with a high-strength, lightweight protective material like Kevlar.
Optical fiber cable is widely used in fiber optic communications.
First commercially deployed in 1977, optical cable is the primary source of long-distance, high-bandwidth communications between telephone companies, multisite organizations and various other long-range communications applications. The composition of optical cable starts with the outer jacket, which is made of a strong and often flexible material. This is followed by plastic cover used to bundle individual optical fiber cables. An optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. Single-wavelength or multiple-wavelength light is passed through the core and keeps traveling inside the core due to the lower refractive index cladding surrounding it, which bounces the light back when it tries to escape.
Two common types of fiber optics are:
Interconnection between multiple fiber strands is much more complex and difficult to achieve, than the ones between electrical cables.