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Relational database design (RDD) models information and data into a set of tables with rows and columns. Each row of a relation/table represents a record, and each column represents an attribute of data. The Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to manipulate relational databases. The design of a relational database is composed of four stages, where the data are modeled into a set of related tables. The stages are:
Relational databases differ from other databases in their approach to organizing data and performing transactions. In an RDD, the data are organized into tables and all types of data access are carried out via controlled transactions. Relational database design satisfies the ACID (atomicity, consistency, integrity and durability) properties required from a database design. Relational database design mandates the use of a database server in applications for dealing with data management problems.
The four stages of an RDD are as follows:
An entity-relationship diagram can be used to depict the entities, their attributes and the relationship between the entities in a diagrammatic way.
By applying a set of rules, a table is normalized into the above normal forms in a linearly progressive fashion. The efficiency of the design gets better with each higher degree of normalization.