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Concurrency, in the context of computer science, is the ability for a program to be decomposed into parts that can run independently of each other. This means that tasks can be executed out of order and the result would still be the same as if they are executed in order.
Concurrency is the ability of an algorithm or program to run more than one task at a time. The concept is similar to parallel processing, but with the possibility of many independent jobs doing different things at once rather than executing the same job.
Concurrent programs can be difficult to write simply because managing independent tasks requires coordination of resources. The famous Dining Philosophers Problem is a classic thought experiment that illustrates the complexities of resource sharing and concurrency.
Modern multitasking operating systems are concurrent with their ability to run many different programs at once. As computing hardware becomes cheaper, running complex jobs on clusters is becoming more feasible. Several programming languages have been designed with concurrency in mind, including Go.