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A waveform is a graphical representation of a signal in the form of a wave. It can be both sinusoidal as well as square shaped, depending on the type of wave generating input. The waveform depends on the properties that define the size and shape of the wave.
The input used to create a waveform determines its shape. Square shaped waves represent digital information in the form of a 0 or 1. However, a sinusoidal wave usually shows the exact variation that occurs in the input.
Waveforms follow a mathematical function that defines how they are represented and allowed to be interpreted by the reader. For example, a sinusoidal waveform follows a trigonometric function that allows it to take its current shape. The square waveform follows a harmonic function.
Waveforms are used to represent different things in various fields of science, including math, cosmology, medicine and biochemistry.