A microprocessor is a component that performs the instructions and tasks involved in computer processing. In a computer system, the microprocessor is the central unit that executes and manages the logical instructions passed to it.
A microprocessor may also be called a processor or central processing unit, but it is actually more advanced in terms of architectural design and is built over a silicon microchip.
Techopedia explains Microprocessor
A microprocessor is the most important unit within a computer system and is responsible for processing the unique set of instructions and processes. A microprocessor is designed to execute logical and computational tasks with typical operations such as addition/subtraction, interprocess and device communication, input/output management, etc. A microprocessor is composed of integrated circuits that hold thousands of transistors; exactly how many depends on its relative computing power.
Microprocessors are generally classified according to the number of instructions they can process within a given time, their clock speed measured in megahertz and the number of bits used per instruction.