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A reduced instruction set computer (RISC) is a computer that uses a central processing unit (CPU) that implements the processor design principle of simplified instructions. To date, RISC is the most efficient CPU architecture technology.
This architecture is an evolution and alternative to complex instruction set computing (CISC). With RISC, the basic concept is to have simple instructions that do less but execute very quickly to provide better performance.
The most basic RISC feature is a processor with a small core logic that allows engineers to increase the register set and increase internal parallelism by using the following:
The words "reduced instruction set" are often misinterpreted to refer to a reduced number of instructions. However, this is not the case, as several RISC processors, like the PowerPC, have numerous instructions. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the DEC PDP-8, a CISC CPU, has only eight basic instructions. Reduced instruction actually means that the amount of work done by each instruction is reduced in terms of number of cycles - at most only a single data memory cycle - compared to CISC CPUs, in which dozens of cycles are required prior to completing the entire instruction. This results in faster processing.