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A password breaker is a cryptographic software application tool that is designed to identify or recover an unknown or forgotten username/password of a secure resource, like a network or computer system. It is used to discern passwords contained in the hacked hashed (encrypted) password list of an infiltrated system.
A password breaker is also known as a password cracker.
Due to time restraints, password breakers do not make repeated system login attempts. Additionally, automation prevention measures are included in modern security systems. Some systems permit only a few incorrect attempts before blocking an account.
Password breakers use two common methods for cracking passwords: brute-force attacks and dictionary attacks. A dictionary attack is straightforward because until one or more matches are found, it simply compares the hashed items to the contents of a dictionary that contains known passwords. On the other hand, a brute-force attack iterates through every available permutation, like trying hello1 then hello2, then 3, then 4 and so on - without a hint of intelligence.
A more sophisticated method involving rules occurs with more complex passwords. In this type of attack, users may apply password creation rules to the dictionary to create more complex passwords, which are then hashed and compared to the stolen list.
Cracking can take anywhere from a few minutes to days, weeks or years, depending on password complexity. However, the process is expedited by using graphics processing units (GPU), which are supported by modern password breakers, like John the Ripper and Hashcat.