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Big data architecture is the logical and/or physical layout/structure of how big data is stored, accessed and managed within a big data or IT environment.
It logically defines how the big data solution will work, the core components (hardware, database, software, storage) used, flow of information, security and more.
Big data architecture primarily serves as the key design reference for big data infrastructures and solutions.
It is created by big data designers/architects before physically implementing a big data solution. Creating big data architecture generally requires an understanding of the organization and its big data needs.
It also entails interconnecting and organizing existing resources to serve big data needs. Typically, big data architecture consists of four different layers:
Big data sources: The entire location that is producing big data
Messaging and storage: The facility where big data is actually stored
Big data analysis: Tools that provide analysis of big data
Big data consumption/utilization: Users/services utilizing the data analyzed