Demographic data refers to data that is statistically socio-economic in nature such as population, race, income, education and employment, which represent specific geographic locations and are often associated with time. For example, when referring to population demographic data, we have characteristics such as area population, population growth or birthrate, ethnicity, density and distribution. With regard to employment, we have employment and unemployment rates, which can be related further to gender and ethnicity.
Techopedia explains Demographic Data
Demographic data is often gathered by census organizations, both government and private, which may use the data for research, marketing, and environmental and human development. Data such as population and employment and all their related data fields such as density, ethnicity and gender can be used by the government to plan for infrastructure development such as roads, hospitals and law enforcement.
Demographic data is also used by marketers and business entities for targeted advertising and product distribution. For example, in areas with a large population density of Latinos, fast food restaurants often offer Mexican-themed foods as opposed to Mediterranean ones. Branches of famous American fast food companies in foreign countries often tailor their menu according to the local taste. All of these are due to demographic research using demographic data.