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A document-oriented database is a specific kind of database that works on the principle of dealing with 'documents’ rather than strictly defined tables of information.
The document-oriented database plays an important role is aggregating data from documents and getting them into a searchable, organized form.
A document-oriented database, as a particular kind of NoSQL database, is able to 'parse’ data from documents that store that data under certain 'keys,’ with sophisticated support for retrieval.
For example, suppose one document has two names, one address, and a list of ages of a home’s occupants. A second document might have four names, two addresses, and no age information. A document-oriented database will take the data in both and store them according to type, able to handle non-fixed length data sets.
Different document-oriented database products are available, some of them with free Apache licensing and other with proprietary licensing.