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L band refers to the operating frequency range of 1–2 GHz in the radio spectrum. The wavelength range of L band is 30–15 cm. The L band is one of the chief operating ranges used by various applications such as radars, global positioning systems (GPS), radio, telecommunications and aircraft surveillance. The L band has a low bandwidth due to its low frequency, and is the easiest to implement for many applications due to this low frequency. The equipment needed is less sophisticated less expensive.
L band is used in many radar, satellite and terrestrial communications applications. L band has a low bandwidth due to its low frequency range and hence is not suitable for streaming applications like video, voice and broadband connectivity. However, it is the most desirable operating range in the case of applications like fleet management and asset tracking.
L band is the least expensive and easiest to implement when compared to other higher frequency ranges like C band and S band. It is easier to process and requires only low-cost RF equipment. It has a wider beam width and hence does not require a high-quality antenna with accurate directionality that is needed by higher bands.
L-band radars are used for clear air turbulence studies and by low-Earth orbit satellites to provide real-time visibility to monitoring the status of equipment from a remote location and to provide machine to machine (M2M) communications. They are also used in terrestrial wireless connections like GSM mobile phones and in GPS satellites. They may also be used as an intermediate frequency for satellite TV to allow easier transmission.
Using L-band technology reduces overhead and does not suffer from high signal loss experienced by high frequencies when transported over copper coax cables. It is less susceptible to interruptions and provides a reliable connection. These beneficial properties make L band a suitable technology for use in remote monitoring and operations management.