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A cloud access security broker (CASB) is the technology that mediates data between in-house IT architectures and cloud vendor environments.
Although the term cloud access security broker may be used by some IT professionals to refer to companies that offer cloud brokering services, it is most often used to refer to a range of technologies that help encrypt or otherwise handle data to make it more secure in a cloud environment.
A cloud access security broker sits between an internal system and an external system to provide services for securing outbound data.
Cloud access security broker technologies often have various features built into the design. These include auditing tools, tools for data loss prevention, encryption tools and monitoring tools. In a general sense, CASBs help shield enterprise systems against various types of cyber-threats by providing services such as malware prevention as well as data security that makes data streams unreadable by outside parties. An example of a CASB technology is the cloud encryption gateway; here the gateway service takes data at the point of egress and encrypts it for security purposes.