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Conditional access (CA) is an access control method used in digital television transmissions that restricts what viewers can watch. Generally, it refers to the type of access a service provider allows for its customers, which is often limited only to the services that the latter have subscribed to. CA is implemented with the help of scrambling and encryption algorithms. It essentially prevents unauthorized usage of services by a consumer.
Conditional access is a technology used in digital transmissions that limits the content that can be viewed by a customer. It is thus useful in subscription services like digital video broadcasts and television broadcasts where customers are allowed to view only the channels they have paid for. CA is used by broadcasting companies to ensure the authorized usage of their services.
Some of the basic components of CA are as follows:
When a broadcast equipment transmits encrypted data to the user, the set-top box filters these data signals and passes them to the security module. The security module checks the authorization status of the data received and, if authorized, decrypts the data and allows display to the user.
CA systems use the Digital Video Broadcasting protocols such as SimulCrypt and MultiCrypt.
SimulCrypt uses more than one set-top box, whereas MultiCrypt allows multiple CA systems to be used with a single set-top box containing a smart card for each CA system used.
CA is implemented using a combination of scrambling and encryption techniques. A 48-bit secret key known as the control word is used to scramble the broadcast data, and this control word is changed frequently to avoid hacking. The control word is protected using encryption during transmission to the receiver as an entitlement control message. The CA subsystem present in the receiver’s set-top box can only decrypt the control word if it has been authorized to do so via an entitlement management message (EMM). An EMM is unique for each user and is identified by the user’s smart card.