Definition - What does Resource Throttling mean?
In IT, resource throttling refers to the artificial cutting down or lowering of the amount of resources or returns in a system. This term is often used to refer to SharePoint features that allow administrators to narrow the results of heavy queries.
Techopedia explains Resource Throttling
There are times when a full system search or other full operation makes too many demands on the system; in this scenario, IT professionals sometimes resort to resource throttling. For instance, in SharePoint 2010, there is a resource for listing where users can put limitations on the number of results returned. This will conserve CPU and other resources. IT professionals can also monitor server activity and look for drains on the system. They can then apply resource throttling in order to control resource use on the system and bring it back to manageable levels. SharePoint users can modify resource throttling settings for specific results.