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Micro-segmentation refers to the practice of splitting up a unified system into many isolated segments. This can be helpful in marketing and business, and also in IT. Micro-segmentation in IT often refers to the segmentation of a network for better network protection.
Micro-segmentation for a network can be done in various ways. One type of micro-segmentation is user micro-segmentation, where an individual user may only have access to a small part of a network instead of the whole thing. Other types of micro-segmentation put up gates or partitions between areas of network data traffic, for example, to split up connections between dedicated network nodes.
The cybersecurity philosophy of micro-segmentation is that by creating these different gates and channels, an attack is less able to reverberate inside of the system. Engineers see micro-segmentation as a set of firewalls to protect areas of the system and limit the negative effects of things like malware and Trojan horse attacks. Micro-segmentation can be powered by some virtualization tools and built into complex virtual systems or other networks.