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A memory address is a unique identifier used by a device or CPU for data tracking. This binary address is defined by an ordered and finite sequence allowing the CPU to track the location of each memory byte.
Modern computers are addressed by bytes which are assigned to memory addresses – binary numbers assigned to a random access memory (RAM) cell that holds up to one byte. Data greater than one byte is consecutively segmented into multiple bytes with a series of corresponding addresses.
Hardware devices and CPUs track stored data by accessing memory addresses via data buses.
Before CPU processing, data and programs must be stored in unique memory address locations.
The bus determines a fixed number of CPU memory addresses assigned according to CPU requirements. The CPU then processes physical memory in individual segments.
The operating system's read-only memory (ROM) basic input/output system (BIOS) programs and device drivers require memory addresses. Before processing, input device/keyboard data, stored software or secondary storage must be copied to RAM with assigned memory addresses.
Memory addresses are usually allocated during the boot process. This initiates the startup BIOS on the ROM BIOS chip, which becomes the assigned address. To enable immediate video capability, the first memory addresses are assigned to video ROM and RAM, followed by the following assigned memory addresses: