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An object-relational impedance mismatch refers to a range of problems representing data from relational databases in object-oriented programming languages. The term is used by analogy with the electrical engineering term "impedance managing," where the optimal design is in most cases to have the input impedance match the output impedance for maximum power flow.
An impedance mismatch can occur when accessing a relational database in an object-oriented programming language. Problems can arise because object-oriented programming languages like C++ or Python have very different approaches to accessing data.
Some of these differences include:
Methods to mitigate impedance mismatch include using NoSQL databases and designing relational databases with object-oriented programming languages in mind, as well as paying attention to differences between OO languages and relational databases when coding a project.