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Natural language understanding (NLU) is a unique category of natural language processing that involves modeling human reading comprehension or in other words, parses and translates input according to natural language principles.
One easy way to understand natural language understanding is by looking at available consumer services and business products that model natural language understanding. For example, Apple's Siri or Amazon's Alexa performs natural language understanding work in the context of hearing and deciphering user inputs. A similar natural language understanding engine is built into Amazon “Lex,” an enterprise service for building machine learning platforms. By understanding how natural language understanding is applied to these applications, it is easy to see how natural language understanding involves the comprehension of language input.