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A baseband unit (BBU) is a device in telecom systems that transports a baseband frequency, usually from a remote radio unit, to which it may be tied through optical fiber.
BBUs are useful in a wide range of telecom systems that route data to user endpoints, as well as for different types of enterprise architectures.
The baseband unit transmits a signal at its original frequency without modulation. This is a common part of telecom systems that deliver signals through complex trajectories. The baseband unit commonly “runs” data to an RF system, as part of a wireless model.
In terms of practical design, engineers typically place baseband units in an equipment room and design it to streamline communication through the physical interface. The small size and low power consumption of these devices makes them popular for this kind of transmission, and easy deployment is another benefit of using baseband units in telecom systems.