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A "full stack" in the technology world is the entire set of software products and technologies used to accomplish a particular platform for applications. This includes elements like the operating system, database software, and more.
The full stack provides an easy terminology for the entire set of tools that created architecture for a pipeline in enterprise IT.
Some define the "full stack" primarily as front-end, database and back-end systems, along with any ‘middleware’ or auxiliary components that may apply.
Others explicitly include the operating system, vendor storage components and more in an itemized full stack. One term frequently applied to the idea of a full stack is the full stack developer — a professional who has an understanding of all of the layers and technologies that make up the entire full stack.
Full stack is also an important term in the context of cloud and software as a service. The rise of these technologies to support applications has led to the evolution of microservices, where full technology stacks become much more complex and diverse.
With that in mind, data scientists who can bill themselves as full stack developers can often write their own tickets, and are increasingly in demand in the enterprise world.