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Access governance is the idea of managing individual user access in ways that protect networks and systems. It's the application of specific policy to access paradigms, and a broad overarching framework for how access works in a given digital environment.
In a way, access governance is a term that's based on the widespread use of the phrase "data governance." Data governance refers to deliberate and planned handling of data assets. Similarly, access governance implies that a company is being very deliberate about access policies and procedures.
Access governance has, in some ways, taken over from the term "identity and access management" (IAM) where various enterprise tools help companies to achieve setting user access levels, granting permissions and doing other access management work. But asset governance is a stricter term in the sense that it suggests there are solid policies and procedures enforceable throughout the network that limit access in very detailed ways.
This allows companies to achieve two (sometimes conflicting) goals at once which would enable people to do legitimate work that they need to do, without leaving sensitive data assets vulnerable to disgruntled employees or other malicious actors.