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Neurotechnology as a new prominent tech term describes any technology that helps us to understand brain function, or enables a direct connection of technology with the human nervous system.
Since the technology world has made rapid advances in both observational technology for the human brain and cognitive modeling technology in artificial intelligence, there's a grey area in terms of what constitutes neurotechnology.
One of the most interesting ways to examine the field of neurotechnology is to ask the question of whether neural networks constitute a neurotechnology or not.
If you go from the literal definition of new technology as technology that brings us new understanding of the actual human brain, it could be suggested that neural networks are slightly different in that they attempt to build a corresponding system based on artificial neurons to help computers think more like humans.
You could also say, though, that since neural networks do illuminate contrasting activity with the human brain, they are a type of newer technology. Likewise, physical systems built with arduinos can be described as neurotechnology in the sense that they may imitate or model human cognitive behavior or the anatomy of the human brain in some way.
In that sense, the field of neural technology is vast and diverse. From digital EEGs to complex simulations of human brain function, neurotechnology has tremendous potential, as in some ways, we are starting to converge the cognitive processes of both humans and machines.
Other types of neurotechnology are directly applied – for instance, new research on electrodes that will connect directly to the human brain, to reveal more about its exact functions.